In most cases, epistaxis (or epistaxis) is not a dangerous phenomenon, which can be eliminated easily at home or in the field. The most common cause of such ailment is the fragility of blood vessels. Another thing, when bleeding happens often, is accompanied by loss of consciousness, weakness, ringing in the ears, headache. A similar state is a signal that it’s time to go to the therapist. It is not superfluous to recall the basics of first aid. The idea of how to stop bleeding from the nose, of course, will always come in handy.
Causes and types of blood flow from the nasal cavity
Before stopping the blood from the nose, determine where it comes from. There are front and back nasal bleedings.
The first species is the most common (9 out of 10 cases), fast-passing and non-hazardous. To recognize it is simple: the blood either drips, or flows out of one or both nostrils. Such bleeding is localized in the anterior part of the medial wall – a region with a thin mucosa and a huge number of fragile capillaries.
The flow of blood from the back of the nose is dangerous because it does not externally manifest itself. Mediated symptoms of the problem are nausea, hemoptysis, black feces. If the blood does not stop for a long time and there are these signs, go to the doctor immediately.
Why does the nose bleed? Here are the most common reasons:
- hemorrhagic diathesis;
- hypertension and vegetovascular dystonia;
- hormonal restructuring;
- deficiency of vitamins C and K;
- curved nasal septum;
- mechanical injuries;
- the presence of polyps in the nose;
- overheating of the body;
- drying of the mucous in the heat or frost;
- poor blood coagulability;
- reception of anticoagulants;
- sharp changes in atmospheric pressure;
- severe overwork;
- sinusitis and rhinitis, adenoids.
In terms of intensity, nosebleeds are minor, light, medium and heavy.
- Blood loss of up to several tens of milliliters with rapidly stopping secretions does not endanger health.
- At the expiration of 400-600 ml (light degree), the adult noticeably pales, feels weak.
- The average loss of blood (600-1200 ml) is accompanied by tachycardia, shortness of breath, a drop in blood pressure.
- Severe hemorrhage (from 800-1200 ml) leads to hemorrhagic shock.
- Children have a critical condition with less bleeding.
How to properly provide first aid for anterior bleeding
With nasal bleeding, it is not recommended to lay the patient on the bed or throw his head back, because in a lying position you will not be able to determine the extent of the problem. Moreover, a significant discharge of blood into the throat can cause vomiting. To act differently.
The instruction how to stop a blood from a nose at the adult in house conditions, is presented more low.
- Put the patient on a chair, sofa or bed.
- Advise him to tilt his head slightly and pinch his nose under his nose with his fingers. Let the patient breathe with his mouth for the next ten minutes.
- Recommend him to refrain from talking, do not blow his nose and do not swallow the movement, so that a blood clot develops as soon as possible.
- In the meantime, get ice out of the refrigerator. Wrap it in a towel. The resulting compress is placed on the bridge of the nose.
- If the blood does not stop from the nose, make a tampon out of the bandage. Moisten it in a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide and enter into the nostril.
Do not use cotton swabs to quickly stop blood. The fact is that when the excretions solidify, they adhere to the walls of the nasal passages. Therefore, when extracting cotton wool, there is a high probability of re-injuring the vessels. After the bleeding has stopped, the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity should be carefully moistened with a moisturizer. This will prevent the casing from drying out.
How to stop the blood from the nose in a child?
The sequence of actions is the same, but the baby should be constantly encouraged and reassured. If it’s a tiny baby, take it in your arms, unbutton your clothes so that it’s easier for him to breathe. To an older child, try to explain that the blood from the nose stops going, as soon as he stops shouting or crying.
How to stop nasal bleeding at home using folk remedies?
Hemostatic properties are possessed by some plants.
- Take a lemon or an aloe leaf. Squeeze the juice out of it. Dissolve one part of the extract obtained with two parts of boiled water. Get the infusion into the nose.
- Tampons moistened in fresh juice of plantain, yarrow or nettle will also help.
- Another means, capable of stopping blood, is the decoction broth (a tablespoon of herb per 50 ml of boiling water).
What to do with bleeding that happened in nature?
- Sit in the shade.
- Slightly lower your head and pinch that nostril with your finger, from which blood comes.
- If there is no bandage at hand, attach a handkerchief.
- In winter, instead of a cold compress, you can use a lump of snow or an icicle. In the summer, a handkerchief soaked in cool water is suitable.
Emergency care for injuries and injuries to the nose
Instructions how to stop blood from the nose at home with superficial scratches and bruises:
- rinse the damaged area with soap and water;
- Wrap the wound with a solution of hydrogen peroxide;
- apply a cold compress to the bruised area;
- if the blood flows from the nose, stop it with a standard tamponization;
- make sure that there is no posterior bleeding – the saliva should be clean, free of blood;
- After half an hour, carefully remove the tampons from the nostrils.
Instructions how to stop the blood from the nose in an adult or child when injured:
- wash the wound with soapy water;
- treat it with peroxide;
- apply a pressing aseptic bandage;
- if the blood has gone from the nose, draw a tamponade;
- As soon as possible, take the victim to the emergency room.
How to stop severe bleeding from the nose in severe injuries?
If you suspect that there is a fracture of the facial bones or nasal septum, immediately call an ambulance. Before its arrival it is necessary to undertake standard steps: to wash out and process a wound, to make a plugging. With severe bleeding, hospitalization is compulsory.
How quickly stop nasal bleeding, depends on various factors: from blood coagulation, the diameter of the bursting capillaries. Slow thrombus formation may be a recent aspirin, increased blood pressure, anemia.
If often there is a blood from a nose what to do or make for prophylaxis?
- Ensure regular air humidification. In allergic or viral rhinitis, do not allow the mucous membranes of the nose to dry out.
- Watch your blood pressure. With a tendency to hypertension, refuse salt, refrain from eating potatoes, grapes, bananas.
- If the blood flows from the nose often, you need to include in the diet of citrus, currant, kiwi, sour cabbage and other products rich in ascorbic acid.
- Will be useful and green leafy vegetables – they have a lot of vitamin K.
When to call an ambulance
To normalize the patient’s condition, as a rule, enough cold compresses and tamponization, stopping bleeding. Emergency medical assistance may be needed if the nose continues to bleed after 15-30 minutes.
Any suspicious discharges that appear after a trauma can also be a reason for urgent hospitalization. For example, an admixture of clear liquid in the blood sometimes indicates a fracture of the base of the skull. Bloody vomiting can result from both posterior nasal bleeding, and damage to the lungs, esophagus, and stomach.
According to the rules, children with epistaxis are subject to mandatory hospitalization if they are sick with diabetes, hemophilia, have immunodeficiency or oncology. An aggravating circumstance is the propensity to hypertension in adolescence. Parents should insist on examination by a doctor if the child has lost consciousness, complained of nausea, dizziness, there is a suspicion of the presence of a foreign body in the nasal passage.
With frequent bleeding it is necessary to undergo a thorough examination (to pass tests, visit a pediatrician, an ENT, an oculist, a surgeon, a cardiologist, a neurologist) to determine and eliminate the cause of the disorder.
Now you know what to do, and if the blood comes from the nose, do not get lost and do not allow the deterioration of the well-being of the child or adult.