Nasal bleeding is a problem that many people face. Since the nasal mucosa is very rich in blood vessels, when bleeding occurs from the nasal cavity, in most cases it is quite strong and can lead to significant blood loss. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to stop the blood as soon as possible. With such a phenomenon as the flow of blood from the nose, people face at any age. In most cases, you can cope with the problem on your own, without involving doctors.
Causes of nasal bleeding
All causes of nasal bleeding can be divided into 2 large groups – local and systemic. Local reasons include:
- trauma to the nose;
- surgical operations in the nasal cavity;
- diagnostic studies of the nasal cavity using a tool;
- foreign bodies entering the nasal cavity;
- acute inflammation in the nasal cavity;
- sneezing with nasal congestion;
- too vigorous blows;
- excessive use of vasoconstrictor;
- too long exposure to high temperatures on the nasal cavity (excessively long inhalation);
- tumors in the nasal cavity;
- anatomical defects in the structure of the nasal septum;
- inhalation of narcotic substances;
- too long inhalation of cold dry air (on very cold winter days).
The systemic causes of nasal bleeding are:
- high blood pressure;
- arteriosclerosis of blood vessels;
- blood diseases;
- a strong increase in body temperature;
- a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure;
- hormonal imbalance in the body.
Regardless of the cause of nosebleeds, it should be stopped as soon as possible.
Assessment of the severity of epistaxis
The severity of nasal bleeding is determined by the amount of blood loss. Doctors today allocate 4 degrees of nosebleeds. This classification is as follows:
- from 10 to 100 ml – a slight bleeding that does not worsen the patient’s condition;
- from 100 to 500 ml – massive bleeding, not carrying a danger to the life of the patient, but significantly worsening his condition;
- from 500 to 1100 ml – heavy bleeding, which threatens the life of the patient and greatly worsens the general condition;
- from 1100 ml – especially heavy bleeding, which can lead to death even with medical help.
Timely rendering of first aid in nosebleeds allows preventing its passage into a severe form, which can be very dangerous.
When urgently needed to call an ambulance
Despite the fact that in most cases, nosebleeds can be stopped on their own, there are situations when the patient needs urgent medical help. Immediately cause ambulance in the following situations:
- Nasal bleeding is severe, and it can not be stopped for 10 minutes;
- the patient has clotting disorders;
- the patient uses drugs to dilute the blood;
- the patient is under high blood pressure;
- blood from the damaged vessels of the nasal mucosa does not flow out of the nostrils, but flows down the back wall of the nasopharynx and larynx into the stomach, which causes bloody vomiting;
- the patient has a pre-fainting condition;
- nosebleeds are repeated within 24 hours.
In the event that medical care is required, it is not necessary to postpone it and continue trying to stop the bleeding on its own, as this may even lead to the death of the patient.
The main error in stopping nasal bleeding
In the fight against nasal bleeding, many make one serious mistake: trying to stop the blood, often tilt the head or lie down, what to do is strictly prohibited. This is due to the fact that in such positions the blood draining from the damaged vessel begins to flow down the back wall of the nasopharynx and the larynx into the stomach, and can also enter the respiratory tract. As a result, the patient’s condition worsens significantly, and in some cases blood clots may occur.
Methods of stopping nasal bleeding in children
In children, nosebleeds are much more common than in adults, and parents should certainly know how to stop this kind of bleeding.
- The simplest way to fight even with severe nosebleeds is to squeeze the nostrils. In order to apply this method, the child should be seated on a chair or kneeled, tilting his head forward slightly and strongly pressing both nostrils to the nasal septum. Keep this way the child’s nose is required for 10 minutes. After the nose of the child is released, from the nasal passages it is necessary to carefully remove the formed blood clots. Since you can not blow your nose after nosebleeds, use a cotton swab dipped in hydrogen peroxide for this purpose. When this procedure is completed, you need to put the baby for 30 minutes. Within 12 hours after epistaxis, children should not be bent and play active games. In the event that the blood continues to flow after that,
- Cold is a classic remedy for nosebleeds in children and adults. To stop bleeding, the child should take the same pose as with the first method of eliminating nasal bleeding. Then, an ice bubble or a cold-watered bow tent should be applied to the bridge of the nose. Further it is necessary to ensure the effect of cold and on the neck. To this end, the towel is soaked in cold water and, folding several times, is pressed against the neck. The effect of cold usually stops the blood for 5-10 minutes. If bleeding does not stop during this time and does not weaken – medical care is required.
- Another means of stopping bleeding is the baths for the hands and for the feet. The child put on a chair, her head tilted slightly forward, and lowered his hands to his elbows in very cold water, and the feet – the maximum tolerable hot water. This method allows you to lower blood pressure in the upper body and thereby stop bleeding.
Most often, nosebleeds in children are not very strong and easily stops at home.
Methods of stopping nasal bleeding in adults
In adults, bleeding from the nose is not as common as in children, but still occurs. If it is not associated with a serious injury or a significant increase in pressure, it is entirely possible to stop it by yourself. Just like children, adults can not in this case throw back their head and go to bed.
- With mild bleeding, when blood does not flow by a stream, you can use nasal vasoconstrictive drops based on naphazoline or xylometazoline. To stop bleeding, a twisted cotton swab (no more than 15 mm thick) should be dripped abundantly with drops and inserted into the nasal passage to the limit, but without applying force to it. If you overdo it, you can damage the mucous membranes and bones. The tampon is left in the nose for 10-15 minutes. To extract it should be very careful not to provoke a new bleeding.
- With heavy bleeding, you can also use cold water. To do this, the patient should pour on the head and shoulders at least 50 liters of very cold water. After such a procedure, there is a significant narrowing of the blood vessels, which causes the blood to stop successfully. This method does not work with a tendency to catarrhal diseases and chronic lung diseases.
- Hydrogen peroxide, which is used to stop bleeding in various skin lesions, can also be used in nosebleeds. To help the patient you need to moisten the peroxide with a peroxide swab and insert it as deep as possible into the nasal passage. After this, the victim should remain at rest for 15 minutes. After the specified time, the swab is gently removed and buried in the nose with a drop of vasoconstrictive drops that will prevent repeated bleeding.
- In the summer you can stop nosebleeds with the help of nettle. For treatment, a cotton swab should be soaked in the grass juice and inserted into the nose. Leave it for 10 minutes, after which the bleeding will stop. This nettle effect is explained by its ability to improve blood clotting.